When a transistor is in saturation Vce is approximately equal to

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VCE approximately equals _____ when a transistor switch is in saturation. VC VB 0.3 V 0.7 2. V CE approximately equals _____ when a transistor switch is in saturation. Solve it.... 3. The input resistance, R in of a common-collector amplifier, consists of _____. Solve it.... 4. The signal voltage gain of an amplifier, A V, is defined as _____. Solve it.... 5. Base bias provides _____. Solve it.... 6. The phase difference between the input and output ac voltage signals of a common-emitter amplifier is _____

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  1. Saturation Vce is a value in the datasheet of a transistor, and it does not change. Its the voltage across C and E when the given (maximum, saturation) current is flowing through C an E (and Vbe sat. is applied on base). If you don't know it, and you have no other information about the specific transistor, you can only measure it. Ideally Vce is zero in saturation. NPN are most used for various reason
  2. When the transistor is in hard saturation @ β s a t = 10, V C E (s a t) ≈ 0.12 V, and V C B (s a t) ≈ − 0.9 V. If this simulation is repeated for many different models of small-signal NPN BJTs, on average the results will be similar to these plots. Figure 1
  3. When a BJT is operating in the saturation region the voltage drop from the collector to the emitter VCE is approximately equal to _____. zero (about 0.3 Volts) When a BJT is operating in the active region, the voltage drop from the base to the emitter VBE is approximately equal to the ________
  4. imum (c) maximum (d) equal to Vcc (e) answers (a) and (b) (f) answers (c) and (d
  5. When a transistor switch is cut off, Vce is approximately equal to c. 0.2V d. 0.7V When a transistor switch is in saturation, VcE is approximately equal to c. 0.2V a

VCE approximately equals ________ when a transistor switch

Yes, and this is why the region of Vce<0.7 is the saturation region. But, the transistor equations say that the current in a forward biased junction is exponentially related to the voltage. So, very little forward bias current is flowing if Vce=0.6 V, as this is only a 0.1 V forward bias. Let's run some typical numbers for a silicon diode. This. collector junction are forward-biased because the base is at approximately 0.7 V (for Si) while the emitter and the collector are at 0 V. Here, the base current is through the base-emitter junction because the low impedance path to ground, and I C is zero. When both junctions are forward-biased, the transistor is in the saturation region of its operation. As V CC is increased, V CE increases. Multiple Choice Questions and Answers on Transistors. In addition to reading the questions and answers on my site, I would suggest you to check the following, on amazon, as well

Solved: When A Transistor Switch Is In Saturation, VCE Isa

How to Calculate V CE of a Transistor. VCE, the voltage that falls across the collector-emitter junction of a bipolar junction transistor, is a crucial voltage to DC analysis of a transistor circuit because it is the voltage that determines the load line and Q-point of a transistor.. VCE is calculated by the formula below:. Exampl • When used as an electronic switch, a transistor normally is operated alternately in cutoff and saturation. - A transistor is in cutoff when the base-emitter junction is not forward-biased. VCE is approximately equal to VCC - When the base-emitter junction is forward-biased and there is enough base current to produce a maximum collector current, the transistor is saturated. BJTs as a Switc

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  1. It equals the base current divided by the current gain
  2. e all currents for the BJT in the circuit below. 10.0 K 2.0 K 5.7 V 10 K 10.7 V β = 99 Hey! I remember this circuit, its just like a previous example. The BJT is in active mode! Let's see if you are correct! ASSUME it is in active mode and ENFORCE V CE = 0.7 V and i C = β i B. The B-E KVL is.
  3. if Vce <Vce_sat then the BC junction is also forward polarized, and we no longer have the previous relations. Indeed, in this case Ic <ß.Ib. The transistor is then in saturation regime. Vce_sat being very low (approximately 0.2 V), we will automatically say that when the transistor is saturated then Vce = Vce_sat. This corresponds to point S.
  4. ed by the load resistor, R L and this is point A on the line. We calculated before from the DC gain of the transistor that the Base current required for the mean position of the.
  5. 9 people answered this MCQ question is the answer among for the mcq VCE approximately equals _____ when a transistor switch is in saturation
  6. So BTJ lowers his collector-emitter voltage to Vcs_sat voltage. The BJT in full ON. Transistor is in saturation region. In saturation Ic = β*Ib don't hold anymore. And in saturation the collector is equal to: Ic_sat = (Vcc - Vce_sat)/Rc ≈ Vcc/Rc. Here you have a more detailed explanation about saturation region

A question about Vce of an NPN BJT in saturation region

equal to VCE,~~, i.e., VCE < VCE,sat, the n-p-n transistor is in saturation, and the MOSFET is off, then I, is equal to I;, and the collector current with respect to the emitter-collector voltage can be written as [17] where rsE and rsc are the series resistances of'the emitter and the collector regions, respectively, and ol, is common-base current gain in the reverse operation. It should be. drop of a transistor at saturation, both between the collector and emitter and also between base and emitter (forward voltage drop of that PN junction). Collector-emitter voltage drop at saturation is generally expected to be 0.3 volts or less, but this figure is, of course, dependent on the specific type of transistor. Low voltage transistors, low VCE, show lower saturation voltages. Th

Transistor Cut off, Saturation & Active Regions - Inst Tool

3. The transistor is said to be in quiescent state when (a) it is unbiased (b) no current flows through it (c) no signal is applied to the input (d) emitter junction is just biased equal to collector junction . 4. In CB configuration, the output V- I characteristics of the transistor are drawn by taking (a) V CB vs. I C for constant I E (b) V. This is the Multiples Choice Questions Part 11 of the Series in Solid State Devices/Circuits as one of the Electronics Engineering topic. In Preparation for the ECE Board Exam make sure to expose yourself and familiarize in each and every questions compiled here taken from various sources including but not limited to past Board Exam Questions in Electronics Engineering field, Electronics Books. Monostable Multivibrator using Transistors - Circuit Diagram. In the above circuit diagram we can find two transistors which are wired as switches. Please read the article Transistor as a Switch to know more about it. When a transistor is ON, it works in saturation region and its collector - emitter acts as a short circuit As VCC is increased, VCE increases as the collector current increases. This is indicated by the portion of the characteristic curve between points A and B, IC increases as VCC is increased because VCE remains less than 0.7 V due to the forward-biased base-collector junction. Ideally, when VCE exceeds 0.7 V, the base-collector junction becomes reverse-biased and the transistor goes into the.

By incorporating the anti-saturation diode ( VDas), the Collector - Emitter saturation voltage (VCE) is raised to Base - Emitter voltage (VBE) . ie, VBE = VCE = 0.7 Volts. So the transistor is no longer in saturation. It is just above saturation. This effect takes place because of anti saturation diode VDas. Since BJT is above saturation. Then the voltage drop across the transistor, Vce is equal to the supply voltage, Vcc. This establishes point B on the horizontal axis of the characteristics curves. Generally, the quiescent Q-point of the amplifier is with zero input signal applied to the Base, so the Collector sits about half-way along the load line between zero volts and the supply voltage, (Vcc/2). Therefore, the.

Transistor Vce Saturation voltage Forum for Electronic

In [ Transistor as a Switch - ON Transistor as a Switch ON. Transistor will become ON ( saturation ) when a sufficient voltage V is given to input. During this condition the Collector Emitter voltage Vce will be approximately equal to zero, ie the transistor acts as a short circuit. For a silicon transistor it is equal to 0.3 When a sufficient voltage (V IN > 0.7 V) is applied between the base and emitter, collector to emitter voltage is approximately equal to 0. Therefore, the transistor acts as a short circuit. The collector current V CC / R C flows through the transistor. Similarly, when no voltage or zero voltage is applied at the input, transistor operates in cutoff region and acts as an open circuit. In this.

transistors - Is a BJT at the edge of saturation when Vce

  1. al of a transistor then switching operation is performed. When a voltage (V in > 0.7 V) is applied between the base and emitter ter
  2. als appears to have short.
  3. If the input is high and equal to VCC, the transistor is driven into saturation, and the output is low and equal to VCE (sat). Digital Logic NOR Gate. If the two inputs are zero, both transistors Q1 and Q2 are in cutoff, and VO = 5 V. When V1 = 5 V and V2 = 0, transistor Q1 can be driven into saturation, and Q2 remains in cutoff
  4. In addition, when Vce = 0, the line representing the dynamic charge line of the transistor can be drawn directly on the curve from the saturation point (A) to the off point (B). If it is 0, then take the run or Q of the transistor at this point. These two points are connected by a straight line, and each position along the straight line represents the effective range of.
  5. imum collector voltage is Vce(sat). •ACTIVATE solidThinking Tuned Class C Amplifie

Voltage VCE- Voltage between the collector and the emitter. V CE = V C - V E (Please note voltage V BE = - V BE and V CE = -V EC) Voltage V BB and V CC are the supply voltages. As mentioned earlier, in BJT, the emitter is heavily doped and has a large number of electrons as majority carriers. (for NPN transistor).As shown in the figure, when the voltage is applied between the base and the. In this section of Electronic Devices and Circuits.It contain Bipolar Junction Transistors(BJT) MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions Answers).All the MCQs (Multiple Choice Question Answers) requires in depth reading of Electronic Devices and Circuits Subject as the hardness level of MCQs have been kept to advance leve

Also maximum current flow. calculate the new value of Rb. In practice when the transistor is turned Transistor Base current: OFF, small leakage currents flow through the transistor and when fully ON the device has a low resistance value causing a small saturation voltage ( VCE ) across it. Even Available online: https. The minimum value reached by VCE in saturation is usually referred to as V CESAT. To review, we note that in saturation (1) iB is greater than ic/3 and (2) VCE = V CESAT ≅ 0.2 V. Example. Find the collector current of the transistor in Fig. 11.35(a) for the following three values of i1: 0, 5, and 20 μA. Assume the transistor is the. (V CE saturation) and I CB0. V CE sat. corresponds to the elbow voltage of the characteristic, it is still called waste voltage. This is the minimum value that the V CE voltage takes for an I C imposed. Depending on the current and the type of transistor, this value varies between 0.15 V and 3 V approximately. I CBO corresponds to the residual collector current for a zero emitter current. It.

Then the voltage drop across the transistor, Vce is equal to the supply voltage, Vcc. This then establishes point B on the horizontal axis of the characteristics curves. Generally, the Q-point of the amplifier is half-way along the load line so the Collector current will be given as half of 9.2mA. Therefore Q = 4.6mA. This DC load line produces a straight line equation whose slope is given. Transistor Collector Characteristic Curves. Using a circuit like that shown in Figure (a), a set of collector characteristic curves can be generated that show how the collector current, IC, varies with the collector-to-emitter voltage, VCE, for specified values of base current, IB. Notice in the circuit diagram that both VBB and VCC are. VBE is the voltage that falls between the base and emitter of a bipolar junction transistor.. VBE is approximately 0.7V for a silicon transistor. For a germanium transistor (which is more rare), VBE is approximately 0.3V.. VBE is important when doing DC analysis of a transistor circuit because it is used for calculations to find the transistor's DC values Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) SJTU Zhou Lingling Outline Introduction Operation in the Active Mode Analysis of Transistor Circuits at DC The transistor as a

Also, a straight line representing the Dynamic Load Line of the transistor can be drawn directly onto the graph of curves above from the point of Saturation ( A ) when Vce = 0 to the point of Cut-off ( B ) when Ic = 0 thus giving us the Operating or Q-point of the transistor. These two points are joined together by a straight line and any position along this straight line. bipolar NPN or PNP transistor output curve. It consists of collector-emitter voltage (VCE) and collector current (IC) as a function of the base current (IBASE). With optocouplers, the emitter forward current (IF) is approximately equivalent to the transistor's base current (IBASE) and is plotted as forward current (IF) in various steps. The.

In digital logic mode, the output signal is either logic high (~VCC) or low (i.e. ground level), and ideally the phototransistor goes into saturation when the transistor output switches to logic high so that the power consumption would be at a very low level. Typically, for a silicon-based phototransistor, the saturation voltage across the collector and emitter, [V.sub.CE], would be at 0.3 V. ¾ the collector current is approximately equal to the emitter current (i.e., β>>1), ¾ the nonideality factor n is equal to one, and ¾ room temperature operation; the emitter resistance may be calculated by (bear with me please, I don't like to have massive quantities of derivations, but I had to go back and prove this to myself again so I decided to write it down): T V E v BE T E e V i e.

Transistor as a SwitchPPT - Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT

The saturation voltage equals: The onset of high injection is therefore expected if the collector current is equal or larger than: (5.4.7) or for: (5.4.8) As for a p-n diode, high injection modifies the ideality factor of the collector current, making it approximately equal to 2. The ideality factor of the base current however remains unchanged since the minority carrier density in the. transistor radio is, few know how it works or why the transistor itself is so important in electronic systems. From an economic point-of-view its main advantages are small size, low-cost, and high reliability. Basically, however, the importance of the transistor derives from the fact that it is a three-terminal device that can provide amplification or gain. The three terminals serve to isolate. • The load line intersects the vertical axis at a point marked IC called transistor saturation point or lower end of the load line. • At this saturation point - IC maximum & VCE very small which is equal to VCE(sat). 12 Fig 3 - DC Load Line with operating points. 13 Simple Way of Drawing Load Line • If the values of VCC supply & the collector resistance RC known - the dc load line.

BJT (bipolar junction transistor) are widely used an amplifier, oscillator, switch etc. It is a current-driven device ( MOSFET is voltage driven), the output current is equal to the input current times a factor which is called Gain. A basic BJT has three pins: the Base, Collector, and Emitter How to find Vcc in transistor. V CC normally does not have to be calculated in a transistor circuit, as it's normally just given. However, it is very important when calculating other values in a transistor such as I C, the current through the collector and I e, the current through the emitter There is also the issue of beta of the transistor But, I think the assumption you can make is that Vcc.

PNP Transistor Example. Consider a PNP transistor, which is connected in the circuit with the supply voltages VB = 1.5V, VE = 2V, +VCC = 10V and -VCC = -10V. And also this circuit connected with the resistors of RB = 200kΩ and RE = RC (or RL) = 5kΩ. Now calculate the current gain values (α, β) of the PNP transistor physics project for class 12th. Aditya lalwani. Introduction Junction diodes are formed by placing a p-type crystal in contact with p- type crystal and subjecting to high pressure so that it becomes a single piece. The assembly so obtained is called junction diode or crystal diode or p-n junction. The surface of contact of p and n-type crystal.

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Saturation Reverse-active Reverse Forward Forward Reverse Reverse Reverse Forward Forward Operating mode EBJ CBJ • Active Mode - voltage polarities for NPN B C E VCB > 0 VBE > 0 IB IC IE. Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits (Based on Dr Holmes' notes for EE1/ISE1 course) 2 BJT - Operation in Active Mode IEn electrons n p n IEp holes E {C B IB IE. The T5's Vce voltage, through R9, move the T4 transistor to saturation area, which operating as a short-circuit allows the green led to light on and also to maintain T5 in cut state. When you press the red push button, this process will be repeated interchanging the cut and saturation states of the transistors and allowing the red led to light on. Therefore, when a led is lighted on, the. Aktuelle Preise für Produkte vergleichen! Heute bestellen, versandkostenfrei Transistor will become ON (saturation) when a sufficient voltage V is given to input. During this condition the Collector-Emitter voltage Vce will be approximately equal to zero, ie the transistor acts as a short circuit. For a silicon transistor, it is equal to 0.3 V. Thus collector current I c = V cc R c will flows. Transistor as a Switch - OFF. Transistor will be in OFF ( cutoff ) when. Manufacturers will specify the maximum voltage drop of a transistor at saturation, both between the collector and emitter and also between base and emitter (forward voltage drop of that PN junction). Collector-emitter voltage drop at saturation is generally expected to be 0.3 volts or less, but this figure is, of course, dependent on the specific type of transistor. Low voltage transistors, low

Floyd Self-test in Bipolar Junction Transistors • Pinoybix

Multiple Choice Questions and Answers on Transistor Audio Power Amplifiers. In addition to reading the questions and answers on my site, I would suggest you to check the following, on amazon, as well By saturation we mean a voltage Vce very close to zero. To get to that point the phototransistor emitter should provide enough current so that Q1 (the first transistor) amplifying it and making it come out from its emitter, injects it in the Q2 base until it is saturated VCE C 0 0V. IB 0 N001 10µ * device under test. Q1 C N001 0 0 npn_ideal_transistor * transistor model statement.model npn_ideal_transistor npn (Is=1.8104e-15 Bf=100 Vaf=35V) * * Analysis Requests * * vary Vce from 0V to 10V in steps of 100mV.DC VCE 0V 10V 100mV *.DC VCE 0V 10V 100mV IB 1u 10u 1u * unused model statements that appear by default of accessing BJT.model NPN NPN.model PNP PNP.lib. Because the transistor is required to operate in the active region, the operating point Q should not enter in the saturation region cutoff. Thus, on the load line is defined by an assessment endpoint QH, which corresponds to a high collector current and another endpoint QL, which corresponds to a low collector current (see sch.4.3.1) Prove that for equal resistor values R Using the BJT as a switch, the Q-point shown in Fig. 4.13 on the load line moves to the saturation region when the transistor is fully-on and to the cut-off region when the transistor is fully-off, i.e., the Q-point must be either in the saturation region or cut-off region and moves between the two regions when the transistor switch toggles between on.

Saturation is the on mode of a transistor. A transistor in saturation mode acts like a short circuit between collector and emitter. In saturation mode both of the diodes in the transistor are forward biased. That means V BE must be greater than 0, and so must V BC. In other words, V B must be higher than both V E and V C. Because the junction from base to emitter looks just like a diode, in. Consider eqn (9) which is approximately equivalent to the following equation if the transistor is operating in the quasi-saturation regime: For the numerical values given in Table 3, eqn (107) is valid only if yc = nc?1(bcNDC) - 3.68 x 10-. If yc were equal to zero (i.e. if JPc were equal to zero), then the right-hand side of eqn (107) would be approximately equal to -V;c, and hence much less. Solved Problems on Transistor. Basic electronics Solved problems By Sasmita January 9, 2020. Q1. A common base transistor amplifier has an input resistance of 20 Ω and output resistance of 100 kΩ. The collector load is 1 kΩ. If a signal of 500 mV is applied between emitter and base, find the voltage amplification. Assume α ac to be nearly one

Solved: When A Transistor Switch Is Cut Off, Vce Is Approx

Each transistor in figure, has a dc current gain β dc = 50, cut in voltage V γ = 0.65 volts and V BEsat = 0.75 volts. The output voltage V o for T 2 in saturation can be as high as 0.2 volts. Assume 0.7 volts drop across a conducting PN junction Doing DC analysis of the transistor circuit is the most common way of finding out the value of IB in the circuit. The equation to solve for Ie is: So we must solve for Vbb and RB in order to solve for IB. Next we compute the value of RB: Now we can calculate the value of the base current, IB, in the circuit: Example . Using the example of the values for the resistors and the voltage, Vcc.

transistor collector resistor calculator. February 13, 2021 in Uncategorized in Uncategorize The output conductance of Ic versus Vce for steps of Vb is used in the calculation. Both Early parameters are extracted simultaneously, which requires both forward and reverse measurements prior to extraction. The actual extraction is performed under the rearly setup. The substrate bias should be held at a negative (positive) voltage for an NPN (PNP) transistor. For the extraction to function. At this point, collector current is approximately zero and emitter is grounded for fixed bias circuit. so, Vce This is the transistor saturation point because I C is maximum at the point where V CE = 0 V and I C = V CC / R C. Actually, there is a small voltage (V CE (sat)) across the transistor, and I C(sat) is slightly less than 45.5 mA, as indicated in Figure 1.4. Note that Kirchhoff's.

Why is it that a saturation of a VCB in a transistor is

Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Electronics page-17:241. Which of the following statement is true? a) The saturation voltage V CF of silicon transistor is more than germanium transistor. b) The saturation voltage V CE for germanium transistor is more than silicon transistor. c) The saturation voltage V CE for silicon transistor is same as that for germanium PNP Transistor Example. Consider a PNP transistor, which is connected in the circuit with the supply voltages VB = 1.5V, VE = 2V, +VCC = 10V and -VCC = -10V. And also this circuit connected with the resistors of RB = 200kΩ and RE = RC (or RL) = 5kΩ. Now calculate the current gain values (α, β) of the PNP transistor

The power dissipation of a pass transistor is large because it is equal to Vcc Ic and almost all variation appears at Vce and the load current is approximately equal to collec­tor current. Thus for heavy load currents pass transistor has to dissipate a lot of power and, therefore, becoming hot. Zener Controlled Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator. The image below shows the circuit diagram of a. A transistor can be acted as. 1) Resistor in the current mirror. 2) Capacitor in the level shifter. 3) Closed or ON switch in the saturation region. 4) Open or OFF switch in the cut-off region. 5) Inverter in cutoff and saturation region. 6) Amplifier in active regio Saturation - the transistor is fully-ON operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) 3. Cut-off - the transistor is fully-OFF operating as a switch and Ic = 0; The word Transistor is an acronym, and is a combination of the words Transfer Varistor used to describe their mode of operation way back in their early days of development. There are two basic types of bipolar transistor.

MCQ in Solid State Devices Part 11 ECE Board Exa

In practice when the transistor is turned OFF, small leakage currents flow through the transistor and when fully ON the device has a low resistance value causing a small saturation voltage ( VCE ) across it. Even though the transistor is not a perfect switch, in both the cut-off and saturation regions the power dissipated by the transistor is at its minimum and VCE (cut off), and then construct the dc load line and plot the Q-point. ** Assume I C I E to find I C(sat) and V CE(cut off) ** Figure 5.9 For Example 3. Solution: 186 | P a g e Figure 5.10 For Example 3. 187 | P a g e Example 4: Determine whether the transistor is biased in cutoff, saturation or linear region. Figure 5.11 For Example 4. [5] Solution: 188 | P a g e 5.3 Collector-Feedback. Transistor operates as an open switch. Then we can define the cut-off region or OFF mode when using a bipolar transistor as a switch as being, both junctions reverse biased, VB < 0.7v and IC = 0. For a PNP transistor, the Emitter potential must be negative with respect to the Base. 2. Saturation Region

Why is Vce < Vbe is the saturated region of a BJT? - Quor

As I E is approximately the same as I C some text books quote r e as 25 / I C.It is important that I E is measured in milliamps and to use the appropriate ambient temperature to calculate r e. In any BJT, the collector current i c, is equal to the product of the base current, i b multiplied by the small signal forward current gain, h fe or β of the transistor. . Thus βi b can be thought of. Reverse Saturation Current (ICO): Due to the reverse voltage , the reverse saturation current also flows through collector junction. 11. In CE configuration, by keeping the base current IB constant, if VCE is varied, IC increases nearly to 1v of VCE and stays constant thereafter. >> If electron supplied to the base are reduced → Base becomes positive in nature and attract less no. ( Log Out. The emitter current of the first transistor is also the base current of the second one. This configuration is called a Darlington pair, and allows for a higher current gain. At the start of this level you may assume that β is ∞. This means that you can ignore the base current, since I B = I C / β = 0 A. Note however, that this does not imply that the transistor is in cut-off. In practice.

Transistor as a Switch - electroSom

The biasing of a transistor is purely a dc operation. The purpose of biasing is to es-tablish a Q-point about which variations in current and voltage can occur in response to an ac input signal. In applications where small signal voltages must be amplified— such as from an antenna or a microphone—variations about the Q-point are relatively small. Amplifiers designed to handle these small. Basic Electronics - Transistor Configurations. A Transistor has 3 terminals, the emitter, the base and the collector. Using these 3 terminals the transistor can be connected in a circuit with one terminal common to both input and output in a 3 different possible configurations. The three types of configurations are Common Base, Common Emitter. If the emitter of Q2 is equal in size to the emitter of Q1, Iout will (approximately) equal Iin; if the emitter of Q2 is scaled twice as large as the Q1 emitter, Iout will be (approximately) twice Iin, and so forth. The term mirror as used herein thus includes both equal input and output currents, and output currents that are proportional to the input current in accordance with transistor. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Basics Abdus Sattar, IXYS Corporation 4 IXAN0063 IGBTs, which have equal forward and reverse breakdown voltage, are suitable for AC applications. The PT IGBTs, which have less reverse breakdown voltage than the forward breakdown voltage, are applicable for DC circuits where devices are not required t BJT Amplifier: Transistors biasing is done to keep stable DC operating conditions needed for its functioning as an amplifier. A properly biased transistor must have its Q-point (DC operating parameters like I C and V CE) at the center of saturation mode and cut-off mode i.e. active mode.; In the normal mode of transistor, the emitter diode is Forward biased and the collector diode is reverse.

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